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到底要看心率好,還是要看功率好?

文/耐力網/曾奕穎

Vector功率踏板

各位還記得前一集提到各種資訊監測之間的不足點嗎?不過並不是要大家丟掉其它所有資訊只用功率計,這是不正確的,每一種資訊都有它的重要性,最理想的情形是把它們全部都紀錄下來,可以幫助你得到更多訓練資訊以調整訓練內容!但是哇哩咧,一把碼表上所有的資訊都打開顯示,那麼多數字跳來跳去看到都快撞車啦!到底是要怎麼看?各位別慌,上路前我們先由喬福瑞教練來帶領我們認識各個數據之間的關係是什麼,彼此又是怎麼互相影響其變化的,因為教練說英文,就由小弟代勞,為各位打造一個比較生活化的閱讀體驗。

FSA功率大盤Power Control 7

下圖中顯示為一位騎士先穩定地爬上一個小坡,然後在另一側享受先前先做的功,快樂地自由溜下,最後回到平地又開始踩動踏版保持前進。爬過坡的車友們一定都有感,爬坡時心率和RPE(運動自覺強度)都會逐漸上升,氣也越喘越大聲,但是功率和速度則是保持在一個較穩定的狀態,到了下坡時,速度則是節節飇升,而心率,RPE與功率都快速下降。若把曲線放一起看,其實可以看出心率的反應慢了幾拍(與RPE相比圖形略偏右),就連剛開始下坡時心率都還在上升,這樣的延遲是很常見的事;RPE在爬坡時快速累積痛苦,下坡時也快速地回到舒適的感覺,直到最後進平地又開始踩踏為止;速率在爬坡時顯然相對較低,下坡時飛快,平地時又回到一個穩定速率前進。

FB10-1_圖一

(出處:Joe Friel (2012). The Power Meter Handbook: A User’s Guide for Cyclists and Triathletes)

那功率呢?它即時地顯示出另外三個資訊所發生的一些變化,穩定地爬完坡後,功率在兩個切換點迅速地發生變化:停止踩踏開始下滑與進入平地開始踩踏時。可以明顯地看出,功率曲線能即時地呈現運動員最真實的輸出。

功率越高,運動表現當然越理想,同理在速度方面亦然。速度和功率直接反應出運動表現,而RPE和心率告訴你運動員正在經歷的「情形」。當把心率、RPE與功率相比較,我們便能得知運動員的「體能水準」,當在同一個坡上時,能踩出更高的功率可是RPE與心率卻相對降低,我們便可以很容易地知道這個運動員變強了!

輸入與輸出

前段中所提到的功率與速度表示運動表現,心率與RPE呈現運動中體驗,這裡指的其實是一個輸入與輸出的關係,這四個數據分別歸類為兩種「多少」:功率與速度是輸出的測量方式,告訴我們到底輸出了「多少」;而心率和RPE是輸入,告訴我們為了製造這樣的輸出而花了「多少」。

這是很重要的區別,在競技運動中,你將因為輸出而獲得獎賞(幹掉對手,得到奬盃或第一個衝過終點線);但是最努力的,可能有殘酷的現實在等待。

(以上原文請見附錄)

比較後才有意義

由上我們可以知道,心率和RPE在「比較」之後才能幫助我們獲得資訊,如文中的例子,同樣的功率輸出,可是輸入變少了(心率變低),這就是體能變強了,或是分析有氧區間和無氧區間之的心率變化,也可以得知自己在有氧能力或無氧能力哪一個比較需要加強,並針對自己的比賽項目做訓練調整。所以若能有更多監測設備,可以幫助你得到更多訓練資訊,有1+1>2的效果啊!不過看到那麼多數據,又該如何整理和分析呢?別擔心,請繼續鎖定本專欄囉!

附錄

Notice that heart rate and RPE rise as the hill is steadily climbed, while speed and power remain fairly constant. When the rider is coasting down the hill, speed increases as heart rate, RPE, and power decline. Note that heart rate is slow to respond as the rider starts up the hill, and heart rate continues to increase in the early part of the descent. This lag is common with heart rate. RPE increases on the climb as fatigue gradually sets in. RPE rather quickly decreases on the downhill side before rising again as pedaling is resumed on flat terrain. Speed remains constantly low on the uphill, increases on the descent, and eventually settles in at a steady rate with the return to flat terrain.
Now look at the power line. It reflects some of the changes taking place in the other three, but it does so rather quickly. Following a steady level on the climb, power almost immediately responds to the transition from climbing to coasting and from coasting to pedaling on the flat section. The power line presents the most useful picture of the athlete’s performance because it is a direct measurement of the rider’s output.
The higher the power is up the hill and on the flat terrain, the greater the rider’s performance is. The same can be said of speed. Only power and speed are directly related to performance. Heart rate and RPE tell us nothing about performance—they simply reflect what the rider is experiencing. When compared with power, however, heart rate and RPE also tell us something about the rider’s fitness. When power is high and heart rate and RPE are relatively low compared with previous rides on that same hill, we know that the athlete is fitter and faster.

OUTPUT AND INPUT

“Only power and speed are directly related to performance. Heart rate and RPE tell us nothing about performance—they simply reflect what the rider is experiencing.”
What I’m describing here are output and input. Power and speed are measures of output. They tell us what is being accomplished during a ride. Heart rate and RPE are input. They tell us what the effort is to create the output.
This is an important distinction. Races give out awards based on output— who got to the finish line first. There are no awards for input—who worked the hardest to get there.

 

耐力網LOGO(160象素寬)作者:波肥/編輯:徐國峰

圖片來源:FSA、Joe Friel (2012). The Power Meter Handbook: A User’s Guide for Cyclists and Triathletes

耐力網相信訓練是科學也是藝術,而訓練的藝術,是科學化的極致表現。

耐力網官網】【FB粉專

power pre speed 功率 功率計 自行車 訓練心率 量化 鐵人三項
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